|Verfasst am: 05.04.2021, 01:00 Titel:
|The simplest type of Muslim early education was offered in mosques, where scholars who had gathered to
discuss the Quran in a short time began to teach religious studies to interested adults. Mosques
Learning quran school
multiplied under the caliphs, especially under the Abbasids: 3,000 of them were reported in Baghdad only in
the first decades of the 10th century; 12,000 were reported in Alexandria in the fourteenth century, most with annexed schools.
Some mosques - such as that of al-Manṣūr, built during the reign of Hārūn al-Rashīd in Baghdad,
or those of Isfahan, Mashhad, Ghom, Damascus, Cairo and the Alhambra (Granada) -
have become learning centers for students of all in the Muslim world. Each mosque usually
contained several study circles (ḥalqah), so called because the teacher was, as a rule,
seated on a platform or cushion with the students gathered in a semicircle in front of him.
The more advanced a student, the closer he got to the teacher. Mosque circles varied in approach, course content, size and quality of teaching, but the teaching method generally emphasized lecturing and memorization. Teachers were generally regarded as masters of culture and their lectures were meticulously recorded in notebooks. Students often made long journeys to join the circle of a great teacher.
Some circles, especially those in which hadith was studied, were so large that it was necessary for the assistants to repeat the lesson so that each student could hear and record it.
Elementary schools (maktab or kuttab), where students learned to read and write, date back to the pre-Islamic period of the Arab world. After the advent of Islam, these schools turned into centers for the teaching of elementary Islamic subjects. Students had to memorize the Quran as perfectly as possible. Some schools have also included in their curriculum the study of poetry, elementary arithmetic, calligraphy, ethics (manners) and elementary grammar. Maktabs were quite common in almost every town or village in the Middle East, Africa, Sicily, and Spain.
The schools conducted in the royal palaces taught not only the maktab curriculum, but also social and cultural studies intended to prepare the pupil for higher education, for service in the government of the caliphs or for an educated society. The instructors were called muʾaddibs, or instructors of good manners. The exact content of the program was specified by the host, but often included the oratory, history, tradition, formal ethics, poetry and the art of good conversation. Education generally continued long after students passed elementary age.
The high degree of learning and research in Islam, especially during the ʿabbāsid period in Eastern Islam and the last Umayyads in Western Islam, has encouraged the development of bookshops, copyists and booksellers in many major Islamic cities such as Damascus, Baghdad and Cordoba. Academics and students have spent many hours in these libraries browsing, reviewing and studying available books or purchasing favorite selections for their private libraries. Booksellers went to famous bookstores in search of rare manuscripts to buy and resell to collectors and academics, thus helping to spread learning. Many of these manuscripts ended up in the private libraries of famous Muslim scholars such as Avicenna, al-Ghazālī and al-Fārābī, who in turn made their homes centers of academic activity for their favorite students.